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The Development of the Automatic Weapon/machine Gun and How It Impacted the Conduct of War between 1776 and 1918

By Alison Douglas

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One of the biggest weapon advancements which differentiated the First World War from past wars was the machine-gun. In 1884 Hiram Maxim developed the world’s first automatic, light, portable machine-gun. Maxim designed the gun as to use the recoil energy given off by each bullet to advance the next cartage out and load the next bullet into the chamber. This meant that a person no longer had to reload a gun or waste time re-aiming the gun. Each machine-gun had the fire power of 100 rifles, and were manned by a team of 3 to 6 men, making it more labor efficient than a rifle also. With this efficiency the machine-gun was able to fire unprecedented 400-600 rounds of ammunition per minute. The machine-gun would therefore fire until the entire belt of bullets was used up.

(more…)

Essay on Slavery as a Necessary Evil

By Susan Parker

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Table of Contents

Thesis In spite of extreme violence and violation of human rights experienced by millions of black people, slavery was a ‘necessary evil’ which became a driven force of economic development.

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Essay on Native Americans in Modern Society

by Lorraine McCurdy

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Native American culture and identity represent a unique combination of historical, economic, political, religious and diverse cultural influences. Impressions and interpretation of the land and the traditions shaped American culture brining unique beliefs and aspirations followed and shared by millions of Americans. This survival of a close link between religion and ethnic identity helps to understand the way Americans tend to think and act. Globalization and integration processes have forced many Native Americans to assimilate and become a part of the American society. According to statistical results, “the Native Americans population is growing. According to the 2000 census data, there are 2.5 million Native Americans in the United States, up from 1.9 million in 1990” (Morton 2002, p.37). In spite of great benefits and advantages, assimilation into American culture brings Native Americans grievances and disillusions. Thesis Assimilation and new social changes have brought Native Americans such problems as alcoholism and infectious diseases, false social images in media have resulted in lack of social support and negative stereotyping which cause great suffering and psychological burden to native population. (more…)

Animal Memory

By Heather Williams

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Introduction

humans memoryHuman memory is a broad topic, encompassing a variety of different types of memory such as short-term, long-term, working, and episodic, among others. Additionally, the function of memory is not limited to one area of the brain. The regions of the striatum, amygdala, frontal lobes, and cerebellum have all received attention when studying how memory is involved in skills, habits, and conditioning (Kesner & Hopkins, 2006).

While a great deal of research has been conducted concerning the human brain and memory, another field of such research exists. It is aimed at understanding the ways in which human memory and that possessed by animals are alike. This research is very important because it does not only help us understand animals; it helps us understand ourselves as well. Realizing the similarities animals and humans share in the memory sphere can be yet another step to comprehension of the mystery of nature. It is not only a question of biology; it is a question of life.

The following research reveals that animals and humans share the capacity for episodic memory and that in both types of organisms, the hippocampus plays a central role.

The Concept of Episodic Memory

Episodic memory is the type of memory associated with personally experienced events and is therefore described as being autobiographical. It is concerned with “what happened and where and when it happened” (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006, p.2). This form of memory, which occurs automatically, involves not only the stimulus, or event, but also a variety of spatial and temporal information. However, episodic memory is different from other types of memory, such as semantic memory. The latter involves the storage and recollection of facts and events without the personal connection. Episodic memory, on the other hand, requires that the individual was an intimate participant in the event remembered. For example, poems learned by heart stay in the semantic memory, while class picnic is stored in the episodic memory.

episodic memoryIn order to experience episodic memory, three simultaneous conditions must be met. One major requirement of episodic memory is that of “autonoetic awareness.” This concept refers to the actual awareness of remembering an experienced event and differs from merely being familiar with the event or being aware of the present moment (for instance, to remember a class picnic you need to have participated in it). Second, an individual must be able to sense time, which provides information about one’s past, allows one to remain aware of the flow of events, and enables consideration of or planning for the future. Without sense of time episodic memories cannot be organized and will ultimately mix all together. Taking the same example with class picnic, a person needs to be aware that it was soon after Easter celebration but before spring finals. Finally, the individual must have the capacity to realize that he or she exists as an entity separate from the surrounding world. This is known as “sense of self”. Humans do possess it and this sense of self naturally brought about the ponderings about “sense of existence” (first documented in the Ancient Greece). These three conditions enable humans to not only mentally travel back into the past and relive an event, but also to travel mentally into the future. Additionally, humans are able to give consideration to what they know and perceive, an activity known as metacognition (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006).

Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals

Metacognition

metacognitionResearch evidence exists that suggests a variety of animals possess episodic memory. Even though the abovementioned criteria presuppose a language component behind them, studies have shown that animals retain episodic memories much in the same manner as do humans. Metacognition, or the ability to think about what one knows, is a characteristic of humans and associated with episodic memory. That is, subjects who are able to effectively elaborate on their own cognitions are thought to have metacognition. It has already been demonstrated by experiments that animals may possess the ability as well. In one experiment, rhesus monkeys were given a memory test. If unsure of the correct answer, the monkeys would request more information (they communicated with humans using gestures); however, if the correct answer was known, the monkey immediately responded. This suggested that the monkeys were aware of what knowledge they possessed. However, this quality of memory may not exist in other animals. For example, in one study pigeons had to classify a monitor with illuminated pixels as being either sparse or dense. Correct answer was rewarded by food pellets, and incorrect answer was not rewarded. Occasionally, the birds had the opportunity to pick the response that they were uncertain whether the screen was sparse or dense. In case pigeons picked this response they received a small number of food pellets (smaller than for the correct answer). Researchers found that when given the choice of three responses in a discrimination test, correct, incorrect, and unsure, would often select the “unsure” response if the task was difficult. The notion of “unsure” response in this case meant that pigeons did not exactly know whether the response was absolutely correct or Pegions memoryabsolutely incorrect. It was either completely unknown to the pigeons so that they could not compare it with their experience or closely similar to either correct or incorrect option, but not totally coinciding. At first one might have thought that true thinking on human level was involved. Such conclusion could be drawn because if pigeons had trusted their inborn instincts and reflexes only, they would never have picked the “unsure” variant. However, when the “unsure” option was removed, performance upon the test did not improve, suggesting that pigeons were perhaps using the “unsure” option indiscriminately and did not possess the ability to think about what they knew. Besides, it is also important to know that pigeons might have picked the “unsure” option simply because they knew that in this case they would still get reinforcement, and there was no “correct – incorrect” risk for them. So it was mostly survival instinct, and not the human-like track of thought.

Recall of Past Events

Another quality indicative of episodic memory is the ability to consciously recall past events. Research indicates that apes do indeed possess this human ability, as evidenced by one animal recalling where an object of interest had been hidden almost 16 hours after seeing the experimenter hide it and then taking the initiative to contact an uninvolved caregiver and lead that individual to the object. Additionally, at the time of recall, the animal was in a completely different environment and given no cues to aid in even remembering that the event had occurred.

ratsBabb and Crystal (2006) demonstrated the ability of rats to recall past events in combination with “where and when” the events occurred. These animals were given access to locations that contained either flavored food or non-flavored chow. One of the flavored foods was then devalued by overfeeding it to the rat to the point of satiation or pairing it with an aversive flavor such as lithium chloride. Results indicated that the rats avoided the devalued flavor while still seeking out the other flavors. The researchers concluded that the rats utilized episodic memory to recall the past events of aversion to one of the flavors and alter their behavior to seek out only the desirable flavors. Similar studies, which documented rats spending greater amounts of time exploring familiar objects than new ones, even when the locations of the objects were shifted, provide support for the notion that rats can recall the “where and when” of past events.

However, another experiment shows that rats are not able to use their past experience to modify their present actions. In this experiment rats had to retrieve food after having been shown that in case of delay food from one side of the maze becomes degraded, while food from the other side stays edible. Even after extensive training rats continued to deliver food from both sides of the maze with little preference for the non-degraded side (Kart-Teke, De Souza Silva, Huston, & Dere, 2006).


Temporal Order Memory

A third characteristic of episodic memory is temporal order memory, or the ability to recall a specific sequence of events. Studies have demonstrated an interesting biological similarity among humans and animals in this regard. Research has demonstrated that humans, rats, and monkeys all possess the capability to remember a sequence of odors or objects after some elapsed time. Lesions to the portion of the brain called the medial prefrontal cortex have been shown to inhibit this ability in not only humans, but also non-human primates and rodents. However, these lesions do not alter the ability to recognize new or familiar objects. This research suggests that different areas of the brain are responsible for different types of memory and that humans and animals possess similarities in brain anatomy and function with regards to memory.

Eichenbaum, Fortin, Ergorul, Wright, and Agster (2005) explored this concept in depth in an experiment involving rats and a series of odors. Of particular interest to the researchers was the role of the hippocampus in temporal memory. Rats were presented with a series of odors comprised of various household scents. Afterwards, the rats were again presented with two of the odors and prompted to select the one that had occurred earlier in the initial sequence presentation. Different pairs of odors were presented with the prompt, some of which occurred two odors apart in the initial sequence and some that had occurred three odors apart. For example, researchers first presented the rats with odors A, B, C, D, and E. Then, they presented the rats with odors A and C (two odors apart) or odors A and D (three odors apart). Results indicated that normal rats were able to correctly identify which of the odors in the pair came first at least approximately 70% of the time. Interestingly, the rats exhibited greater accuracy when the pairs consisted of odors three or more positions apart in the initial sequence.

Once this first trial was completed, the researchers repeated the experiment with rats given lesions in the hippocampus area of the brain. Rats in the control group performed equally well as their counterparts in the previous experiment; however, rats with hippocampal lesions had great difficulty in determining which odor had occurred first in the initial series. For example, normal rats correctly identified odor B as coming before odor E over 80% of the time. Rats with lesions could only correctly identify odor B as coming first less than 60% of the time, a percentage close to that of mere chance. Researchers concluded from these experiments that like humans, rats possess the ability to recall the sequence of events in an experience and the hippocampal portion of the brain governs that ability.

Retrospective and Prospective Memory

Episodic memory allows one to, in a sense, time travel to the past or future to either relive an event or predict a future event based upon past knowledge. This is referred to as retrospective and prospective memory, respectively. Like humans, research has indicated that some animals may be capable of these functions. Studies indicated that pigeons are able to anticipate future events based upon a recent set of actions. However, unlike humans who retain information for decades, the retention intervals of pigeons are relatively short. For example, the pigeons successfully coped with a situation based on their previous experience. When that same situation was proposed to them a week later the pigeons acted as if they had never before dealt with it.

carrier-pigeon-faster-than-internetEvidence for retrospective memory has also been demonstrated in dolphins, non-human primates, and rats. This evidence showed itself through the same course of experiments, which were previously conducted on the pigeons. However, unlike humans who are able to use both retrospective and prospective memory in conjunction, these animals typically only use one or the other. In lab experiments, for example, rats associated chocolate with unpleasant experiences because once LiCl was added to it (retrospective memory). However, they never took into account the possibility that other types of food (bananas or grapes) may also be contaminated by LiCl in the future (prospective memory). Also, if prospective memory is used to complete a task, in animals it is linked with the near future, whereas humans have the ability to think much further ahead in time (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006).

Ferbinteanu and Shapiro (2003) investigated retrospective and prospective memory in rats and the role of the hippocampus in both types. Rats were placed in a wooden maze in which they were required to move from the start arm of the maze to the goal arm in order to gain a food reward. The location of the goal remained constant while the start location varied. Once the rat could reliably find the goal arm regardless of starting point, the goal location was changed. In the goal arms, retrospective memory was utilized to in recalling the different start arms; in the start arms, prospective memory guided the rat to the goal. Rats in the experimental group were then subject to fornix lesions or sham surgery to determine if the maze task required the functioning of the hippocampal region. While traversing the maze, quantitative measurements of brain electrical activity in various portions of the hippocampus were recorded. When comparing the performance and brain activity of these rats to control group rats, researchers found that different groups of hippocampal neurons fired when the rat utilized either retrospective or prospective memory to move through the maze. It was rather easy to identify for the reason that groups of hippocampal neurons responsible for retrospective and prospective memory are situated in different parts of the brain. Additionally, retrospective memory was used more frequently than prospective. In rats with brain lesions, both forms of memory were diminished. Even though these rats remembered the tasks procedured and started them readily, their chances of successful completion were significantly smaller. On the other hand, the animals with sham lesions performed well after surgery, and their performance continued to improve. This research suggests the point that the neuronal signals in the various hippocampal areas were necessary for task performance.

These findings are in line with the knowledge concerning the role of the hippocampus in human episodic memory. In the experiment hippocampal neurons demonstrated prospective, place and retrospective coding. Therefore, the neurons appeared to encode memory demands and not a location or a specific sequence of movements through the maze. However, they provided a crucial signal for distinguishing the same events that happened in different moments of the time by encoding the recent past, the present and the near future simultaneously. Thus hippocampal neurons contribute to the mechanism of episodic memory.

Summary and Conclusions

thinking_monkeyEpisodic memory is concerned with not only specific events in an organism’s life, but also the “where and when” of their existence. Research in both humans and a variety of animals indicates that this type of memory is an overlapping feature. Animals have been shown to exhibit metacognition rats, are able to utilize temporal order memory to recall a specific sequence of events. Retrospective memory, another component of episodic memory in humans, has been demonstrated in , non-human primates, and rats.

However, not all animals possess the capability for this type of memory; research indicated that pigeons were unable to demonstrate metacognition, an important component of episodic memory. In conjunction with studies involving tasks requiring memory, many research studies alter portions of the brain hypothesized to play a central role, such as the hippocampus. The main idea of such research is that it is possible to influence memory not only in psychological (such as hypnosis) but also purely physical ways. It also explains the medical cases when after suffering a head trauma a person lost different memory functions (such as short-term memory or memorizing numbers). Results in this area indicate that the hippocampus plays a dolphin-kisscentral role in episodic memory in humans and animals alike. Study of the similarities and differences between human and animal memory, particularly in the area of brain anatomy and function, may provide important insights into the evolution of memory across species and provide scientists with the explanation of memory mysteries both for animals and humans. In perspective, such research will also be important for developing treatments for different mental conditions directly connected with memory for example, amnesia or loss of short-term memory. Research results may be able to provide clues for treatment of such diseases – from the choice of necessary medicine (after studying the influence necessary surgical operations on certain parts of the brain.

References

Babb, S.J. & Crystal, J.D. (2006). Episodic-Like Memory in the Rat. Current Biology, 16, 1317-1321.

Dere, E., Kart-Teke, E., Huston, J.P., & De Souza Silva, M.A. (2006). The Case for Episodic Memory in

Animals.

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Retrieved November 24, 2006, retrieved from

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

Eichenbaum, H., Fortin, N.J., Ergorul, C., Wright, S.P., & Agster, K.L. (2005). Episodic Recollection in

Animals: “If It Walks Like a Duck and Quacks Like a Duck…” Learning and Motivation, 36, 190-207.

Ferbinteanu, J. & Shapiro, M.L. (2003). Prospective and Retrospective Memory Coding in the Hippocampus.

Neuron, 40, 1227-1239.

Kart-Teke, E., De Souza Silva, M.A., Huston, J.P., & Dere, E. (2006). Wistar Rats Show Episodic-Like

Memory for Unique Experiences. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 85, 173-182.

Kesner, R.P., & Hopkins, R.O. (2006). Mneumonic Functions of the Hippocampus: A Comparison

Between Animals and Humans. Biological Psychology, 73, 3-18.

Animal Memory

Introduction

Human memory is a broad topic, encompassing a variety of different types of memory such as short-term, long-term, working, and episodic, among others. Additionally, the function of memory is not limited to one area of the brain. The regions of the striatum, amygdala, frontal lobes, and cerebellum have all received attention when studying how memory is involved in skills, habits, and conditioning (Kesner & Hopkins, 2006).

While a great deal of research has been conducted concerning the human brain and memory, another field of such research exists. It is aimed at understanding the ways in which human memory and that possessed by animals are alike. This research is very important because it does not only help us understand animals; it helps us understand ourselves as well. Realizing the similarities animals and humans share in the memory sphere can be yet another step to comprehension of the mystery of nature. It is not only a question of biology; it is a question of life.

The following research reveals that animals and humans share the capacity for episodic memory and that in both types of organisms, the hippocampus plays a central role.

The Concept of Episodic Memory

Episodic memory is the type of memory associated with personally experienced events and is therefore described as being autobiographical. It is concerned with what happened and where


and when it happened” (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006, p.2). This form of memory, which occurs automatically, involves not only the stimulus, or event, but also a variety of spatial and temporal information. However, episodic memory is different from other types of memory, such as semantic memory. The latter involves the storage and recollection of facts and events without the personal connection. Episodic memory, on the other hand, requires that the individual was an intimate participant in the event remembered. For example, poems learned by heart stay in the semantic memory, while class picnic is stored in the episodic memory.

In order to experience episodic memory, three simultaneous conditions must be met. One major requirement of episodic memory is that of autonoetic awareness. This concept refers to the actual awareness of remembering an experienced event and differs from merely being familiar with the event or being aware of the present moment (for instance, to remember a class picnic you need

to have participated in it). Second, an individual must be able to sense time, which provides information about ones past, allows one to remain aware of the flow of events, and enables consideration of or planning for the future. Without sense of time episodic memories cannot be organized and will ultimately mix all together. Taking the same example with class picnic, a person needs to be aware that it was soon after Easter celebration but before spring finals. Finally, the individual must have the capacity to realize that he or she exists as an entity separate from the surrounding world. This is known as sense of self. Humans do possess it and this sense of self naturally brought about the ponderings about sense of existence (first documented in the Ancient Greece). These three conditions enable humans to not only mentally travel back


into the past and relive an event, but also to travel mentally into the future. Additionally, humans are able to give consideration to what they know and perceive, an activity known as metacognition (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006).

Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals

Metacognition

Research evidence exists that suggests a variety of animals possess episodic memory. Even though the abovementioned criteria presuppose a language component behind them, studies have shown that animals retain episodic memories much in the same manner as do humans. Metacognition, or the ability to think about what one knows, is a characteristic of humans and associated with episodic memory. That is, subjects who are able to effectively elaborate on

their own cognitions are thought to have metacognition. It has already been demonstrated by experiments that animals may possess the ability as well. In one experiment, rhesus monkeys were given a memory test. If unsure of the correct answer, the monkeys would request more information (they communicated with humans using gestures); however, if the correct answer was known, the monkey immediately responded. This suggested that the monkeys were aware of what knowledge they possessed. However, this quality of memory may not exist in other animals. For example, in one study pigeons had to classify a monitor with illuminated pixels as being either sparse or dense. Correct answer was rewarded by food pellets, and incorrect answer was not rewarded. Occasionally, the birds had the opportunity to pick the response that they were uncertain whether the screen was sparse or dense. In case pigeons picked this response they


received a small number of food pellets (smaller than for the correct answer). Researchers found that when given the choice of three responses in a discrimination test, correct, incorrect, and unsure, would often select the unsure response if the task was difficult. The notion of

unsure response in this case meant that pigeons did not

exactly know whether the response was absolutely correct or absolutely incorrect. It was either completely unknown to the pigeons so that they could not compare it with their experience or closely similar to either correct or incorrect option, but not totally coinciding. At first one might have thought that true thinking on human level was involved. Such conclusion could be drawn because if pigeons had trusted their inborn instincts and reflexes only, they would never have picked the unsure variant. However, when the unsure option was removed, performance upon the test did not improve, suggesting that pigeons were perhaps using the unsure option indiscriminately and did not possess the ability to think about what they knew. Besides, it is also important to know that pigeons might have picked the unsure option simply because they knew that in this case they would still get reinforcement, and there was no “correct incorrect risk for them. So it was mostly survival instinct, and not the human-like track of thought.

Recall of Past Events

Another quality indicative of episodic memory is the ability to consciously recall past events. Research indicates that apes do indeed possess this human ability, as evidenced by one animal recalling where an object of interest had been hidden almost 16 hours after seeing the experimenter hide it and then taking the initiative to contact an uninvolved caregiver and lead


that individual to the object. Additionally, at the time of recall, the animal was in a completely different environment and given no cues to aid in even remembering that the event had occurred.

Babb and Crystal (2006) demonstrated the ability of rats to recall past events in combination with where and when” the events occurred. These animals were given access to locations that contained either

flavored food or non-flavored chow. One of the flavored foods was then devalued by overfeeding it to the rat to the point of satiation or pairing it with an aversive flavor such as lithium chloride. Results indicated that the rats avoided the devalued flavor while still seeking out the other flavors. The researchers concluded that the rats utilized episodic memory to recall the past events of aversion to one of the flavors and alter their behavior to seek out only the desirable flavors. Similar studies, which documented rats spending greater amounts of time exploring familiar objects than new ones, even when the locations of the objects were shifted, provide support for the notion that rats can recall the where and when” of past events.

However, another experiment shows that rats are not able to use their past experience to modify their present actions. In this experiment rats had to retrieve food after having been shown that in case of delay food from one side of the maze becomes degraded, while food from the other side stays edible. Even after extensive training rats continued to deliver food from both sides of the maze with little preference for the non-degraded side (Kart-Teke, De Souza Silva, Huston, & Dere, 2006).


Temporal Order Memory

A third characteristic of episodic memory is temporal order memory, or the ability to recall a specific sequence of events. Studies have demonstrated an interesting biological similarity among humans and animals in this regard. Research has demonstrated that humans, rats, and monkeys all possess the capability to remember a sequence of odors or objects after some elapsed time. Lesions to the portion of the brain called the medial prefrontal cortex have been shown to inhibit this ability in not only humans, but also non-human primates and rodents. However, these lesions do not alter the ability to recognize new or familiar objects. This research suggests that different areas of the brain are responsible for different types of memory and that humans and animals possess similarities in brain anatomy and function with regards to memory.

Eichenbaum, Fortin, Ergorul, Wright, and Agster (2005) explored this concept in depth in an experiment involving rats and a series of odors. Of particular interest to the researchers was the role of the hippocampus in temporal memory. Rats were presented with a series of odors comprised of various household scents. Afterwards, the rats were again presented with two of the odors and prompted to select the one that had occurred earlier in the initial sequence presentation. Different pairs of odors were presented with the prompt, some of which occurred two odors apart in the initial sequence and some that had occurred three odors apart. For example, researchers first presented the rats with odors A, B, C, D, and E. Then, they presented the rats with odors A and C (two odors apart) or odors A and D (three odors apart). Results indicated that normal rats were able to correctly identify which of the odors in the pair came first at least approximately 70% of the time. Interestingly, the rats exhibited greater accuracy when the pairs consisted of odors three or more positions apart in the initial sequence.


Once this first trial was completed, the researchers repeated the experiment with rats given lesions in the hippocampus area of the brain. Rats in the control group performed equally well as their counterparts in the previous experiment; however, rats with hippocampal lesions had great difficulty in determining which odor had occurred first in the initial series. For example, normal rats correctly identified odor B as coming before odor E over 80% of the time. Rats with lesions could only correctly identify odor B as coming first less than 60% of the time, a percentage close to that of mere chance. Researchers concluded from these experiments that like humans, rats possess the ability to recall the sequence of events in an experience and the hippocampal portion of the brain governs that ability.

Retrospective and Prospective Memory

Episodic memory allows one to, in a sense, time travel to the past or future to either relive an event or predict a future event based upon past knowledge. This is referred to as retrospective and prospective memory, respectively. Like humans, research has indicated that some animals may be capable of these functions. Studies indicated that pigeons are able to anticipate future events based upon a recent set of actions. However, unlike humans who retain information for

decades, the retention intervals of pigeons are relatively short. For example, the pigeons successfully coped with a situation based on their previous experience. When that same situation was proposed to them a week later the pigeons acted as if they had never before dealt with it.


Evidence for retrospective memory has also been demonstrated in dolphins, non-human primates, and rats. This evidence showed itself through the same course of experiments, which were previously conducted on the pigeons. However, unlike humans who are able to use both retrospective and prospective memory in conjunction, these animals typically only use one or the other. In lab experiments, for example, rats associated chocolate with unpleasant experiences because once LiCl was added to it (retrospective memory). However, they never took into account the possibility that other types of food (bananas or grapes) may also be contaminated by LiCl in the future (prospective memory). Also, if prospective memory is used to complete a task, in animals it is linked with the near future, whereas humans have the ability to think much further ahead in time (Dere, Kart-Teke, Huston, & De Souza Silva, 2006).

Ferbinteanu and Shapiro (2003) investigated retrospective and prospective memory in rats and the role of the hippocampus in both types. Rats were placed in a wooden maze in which they were required to move from the start arm of the maze to the goal arm in order to gain a food reward. The location of the goal remained constant while the start location varied. Once the rat could reliably find the goal arm regardless of starting point, the goal location was changed. In the goal arms, retrospective memory was utilized to in recalling the different start arms; in the start arms, prospective memory guided the rat to the goal. Rats in the experimental group were then subject to fornix lesions or sham surgery to determine if the maze task required the functioning of the hippocampal region. While traversing the maze, quantitative measurements of brain electrical activity in various portions of the hippocampus were recorded. When comparing the performance and brain activity of these rats to control group rats, researchers found that different groups of hippocampal neurons fired when the rat utilized either retrospective or prospective memory to move through the maze. It was rather easy to identify for the reason that


groups of hippocampal neurons responsible for retrospective and prospective memory are situated in different parts of the brain. Additionally, retrospective memory was used more frequently than prospective. In rats with brain lesions, both forms of memory were diminished. Even though these rats remembered the tasks procedured and started them readily, their chances of successful completion were significantly smaller. On the other hand, the animals with sham lesions performed well after surgery, and their performance continued to improve. This research suggests the point that the neuronal signals in the various hippocampal areas were necessary for task performance.

These findings are in line with the knowledge concerning the role of the hippocampus in human episodic memory. In the experiment hippocampal neurons demonstrated prospective, place and retrospective coding. Therefore, the neurons appeared to encode memory demands and not a location or a specific sequence of movements through the maze. However, they provided a crucial signal for distinguishing the same events that happened in different moments of the time by encoding the recent past, the present and the near future simultaneously. Thus hippocampal neurons contribute to the mechanism of episodic memory.

Summary and Conclusions

Episodic memory is concerned with not only specific events in an organisms life, but also the where and when of their existence. Research in both humans and a variety of animals indicates that this type of memory is an overlapping feature. Animals have been shown to exhibit metacognition


rats, are able to utilize temporal order memory to recall a specific sequence of events. Retrospective memory, another component of episodic memory in humans, has been demonstrated in , non-human primates, and rats.

However, not all animals possess the capability for this type of memory; research indicated that pigeons were unable to demonstrate metacognition, an important component of episodic memory. In conjunction with studies involving tasks requiring memory, many research studies alter portions of the brain hypothesized to

play a central role, such as the hippocampus. The main idea of such research is that it is possible to influence memory not only in psychological (such as hypnosis) but also purely physical ways. It also explains the medical cases when after suffering a head trauma a person lost different memory functions (such as short-term memory or memorizing numbers). Results in this area indicate that the hippocampus plays a central role in episodic memory in humans and animals alike. Study of the similarities and differences between human and animal memory, particularly in the area of brain anatomy and function, may provide important insights into the evolution of memory across species and provide scientists with the explanation of memory mysteries both for animals and humans. In perspective, such research will also be important for developing treatments for different mental conditions directly connected with memory for example, amnesia or loss of short-term memory. Research results may be able to provide clues for treatment of such diseases from the choice of necessary medicine (after studying the influence


necessary surgical operations on certain parts of the brain.

References

Babb, S.J. & Crystal, J.D. (2006). Episodic-Like Memory in the Rat. Current Biology, 16, 1317-

1321.

Dere, E., Kart-Teke, E., Huston, J.P., & De Souza Silva, M.A. (2006). The Case for Episodic

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Language vs. Thought

Does language determine thought, does thought determine language or is the relationship more complicated than this?

If one considers the connection between thought and language, we face the questions whether we think in language, whether those who do not possess language are able to “think”, and the way language forms our thoughts. It is rather complicated question, which regards to the nature of linguistic communication. Scientists usually consider that language is a basic mean by which people transmit the content of their thoughts to other people. The problem is whether that is a right scheme of linguistic communication. The scientists faced with the problem of the relation between thought and language because this common picture of communication makes a certain priority over language. If there is ground to distrust this scheme, then one cannot expect to make a progress with the more simple questions without considering the nature of linguistic communication.

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Personal Essay on The Best Day in My Life

Well, I’d like to tell you about the best day in my life, which I won’t be able to forget for a long time. So here it goes…
I was a professional sportsman and I had a very successful career. Everything was really great, I had lots of advantageous offers from abroad and my thoughts about my future were somewhere in Germany, Spain, etc… It was a time when I could rise my head up to the sky and say: “God, I’m happy!”. But then, all of a sudden I broke my left knee. (more…)

Internet Love

My friend says: “Justin is such a wonderful man. He is sweet, and smart, and caring. I’m so in love with him.”

I say: “I’m so glad for you. How long have you been dating?”

She says: “8 months.”

I say: “That’s quite a time. Where do you usually spend evenings?”

She says:” Facebook.” (more…)

Women and Cosmetics: A Persistent Desire

Women love to beautify themselves intensively and it is their eternal desire to look beautiful and different from other women. Some women are naturally very beautiful and do not need any make up. But cosmetics help women to enhance their beauty and they completely change their outlook and appearance.

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Speculations on the Existence of Inorganic Life in the Universe

In most popular science fiction stories we encounter bizarre monsters with lots of heads and eyes, odd number of appendages, green skin, and other absurd oddities. However imaginative we try to be in our conception of an “alien”, we inevitable end up creating a humanoid or a monster out of our childhood nightmares. Our imagined alien life forms are, usually and inescapably, exaggerated versions of beings that scare or fascinate us the most. If there indeed is life elsewhere in the universe, would it look like aliens in our cartoons and films, or would it be completely and utterly be something we could never have imagined? (more…)

Realities of Life in Stalin’s USSR and Hitler’s Germany

Hope. Despair. These two feelings, so different, and yet, so common in the 1930’s in the USSR and Nazi Germany set the tone of Stalin’s and Hitler’s rule of that era. As most historians would agree, hard work and complicated lifestyle characterized most of that time period. Tomes of literary works were written on the subject; generations of historians worked on discovering not only the overall situation in both states, but also looked into individual stories of people of that time. It is truly difficult to comprehend the gloom reality the citizens faced in the 1930’s through the dry statistics and compound reports. However, when one looks at individual stories, especially the lives of human beings like us, it becomes clear what hardships and shortcomings millions of people faced at the time.

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Stem Cells Research: the Road to Life or Death

In the era of inventions and new technologies it seems that nothing can surprise humanity, but unbelievable things still remain in our world. One of them is the notion of stem cells – a source of prejudice and hopes of our generation. Stem cells therapy or founder cells therapy is a new method of treatment, the use of which, however, needs cells of human embryo. Despite the fact that stem cells research does not correspond with the Christian ethics, it suggests new principles in treatment of the most severe diseases of our time and makes significant assessment to development of medical science.

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Roots and Causes of the Current Economic Crisis

The world financial crisis of 2007-2009 is compared to the Great Depression. Starting in the US, the crisis rapidly spread all over the world, leading to the growth of unemployment and inflation, collapse of small and medium businesses and other serious problems. The neutralization of crisis effects still remains one of the priority tasks in world countries along with the restoration of the economics.

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Roots and Causes of World War I

Abstract

World War I was caused by the imperialistic controversies between the group of Great Powers which had succeeded to conquer the vast territories and resources of underdeveloped overseas countries and the group of the countries which had been late. The latter being unwilling to put up with such conditions and wished to conquer their place under the sun.

Great Powers of that time were also obsessed with the legacy of dying Ottoman Empire. Russians had long fostered the idea of establishing their control over The Turkish Straits. That would allow them to spread their influence over the Mediterranean. Western Powers did their best to prevent the advent of another Mistress of the Seas.

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International Relations History

Why did the League of Nations fail to oversee the world peace? Do you think that the UN is more effective? Why or why not?

In the history of international relations and history of human kind in general there was always a struggle between national (personal) interests and international goodness (common interests). Depending on the stage of states and international relations development this opposition had different forms – from war between nations where moral values had no place to exist, to the negotiations stage and attempts to create international order preventing threat of the new World War. One of such attempts was creation of international organization aiming to be a mean of cooperation between countries and guarantor of collective security (though in the time of creation the exact term was not used). This idea was realized in the organization of the League of Nations in 1920. But it didn’t prevent the World War II.

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Different Kinds of Line-Ups

It is important to know that witnesses play a significant role in the administration of justice as they are the key in the process of identification, charging and conviction of the suspects. The police officers need to advice the witnesses on the best type of line-ups to choose in order for them to accurately identify the suspects. There are known to be two types of police line-ups and these are sequential line-ups and simultaneous line-ups. In sequential line-ups, the witnesses are required to have in possession the ability to exercise the absolute judgment and this involves making comparison of each photograph or person with respect to the memory of how the offender looked like, (Bartollas and Dinitz 45). (more…)

Food Inc. Movie Review

Discuss Issues, Raised in the Film from the Perspective of Engineering Ethics, Professional Responsibility and Conflict of Interests.

A fascinating documentary Food Inc., directed by Robert Kenner reveals provocative and shocking facts concerning the unknown, dark side of the American food industry. Exploring the overall process of production and processing of food on its way to end consumer, it explains why and how one of the most vital spheres of human activity became controlled by a few acquisitive and powerful corporations, which set own profit above consumer health. It shows cruel treatment of animals in factory farms, flagrant violation of workers’ rights and irresponsible attitude to environment, typical for this highly mechanized and totally commercialized process. The unanimous opinion, derived from interviews with investigating authors Eric Schlosser and Michael Pollan, oppressed and progressive farmers, food safety advocates and government representatives is that modern food industry, receiving huge profits, implements unethical, unsustainable and unsafe methods and technologies, consequently producing unhealthy food, which puts at risk human health and life. (more…)

Essay on Organizational Culture

Is culture manageable?

Organizational culture is usually shaped during a long period of time, and it includes different rituals, symbols, stories, etc., that help to identify organization and allow the employees to feel their direct participation in company’s life. The point is that organizational culture emerges as a result of organization’s founder vision of it and the main goals that have been set for a particular organization. So, very complex process takes place while the establishment of organization’s culture. First of all, the right people must be found and hired for suitable positions. It means that employees should think and act as creators of organization do, and their style of work should be acceptable for organization’s concept that have been chosen.  Secondly, the relevant organizational structure must be implemented to ensure the effective functioning of company. Lastly, the founder should behave in proper way, to be an example for other members of organization.

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Leadership/Management Style and its Impact on Employee

Introduction
The significance of leadership style is a subject that has drawn much contentious discussions. The term “leadership” has various meanings that are relative to the educator. Most studies in leadership have been directed towards government agencies, the military and business organizations with little attention directed towards sports (Harte 100). However one generally accepted conclusion is that the style of leadership used by an organization has an effect on its performance outcome. Leadership style has a direct impact both on the employees and the general success of the organization. This essay therefore seeks to examine the three main types of leadership styles in organizations. (more…)

Essay on Recruitment and Training in Human Resource Development

Introduction

Human resource development as explained by Philip Kotler entails a structure for assisting workers develop their individual skills as well as organizational competencies and knowledge (69). Human resource development comprises recruitment and training among other functions. This short paper examines recruitment and training in human resource development.

Recruitment and staffing

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Gold Standard

What is a gold standard?

Before attempting to define the Gold Standard, it would be probably more important to look at the circumstances and conditions that led to, and enhanced this kind of monetary system. As trade became clear for nations, within and outside national economies, there was need for a standard monetary system to govern exchange. The gold standard is one of these systems, in which gold was used as a backing for money in circulation. In the gold standard system, money that is printed reflects the gold reserve of the country’s central bank. Of course, there could be other backing like silver, but gold was adopted for the superior characteristics it has over the others (Flandreau & Eichengreen 80).

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Plagiarism

Introduction

Contemporary academia is faced with great challenge arising from the act of plagiarism. Students, fearing being expelled from college because of poor grades have discovered weird methods of accomplishing their college assignments with ease resulting to majority of them being awarded distinction unjustly. Plagiarism makes the achievement of the objective of academic integrity elusive. Students found committing the offense excuse themselves by claiming to being forced to plagiarize because of great workload in colleges and universities.

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Business Ethics

Introduction

From the beginning of 1970s, ethical practices in business gained more importance, and since then corporations have tackled this aspect in their businesses in different ways (Wood, 691). A close examination reveals that ethics and social responsibility within corporations, in this period of conscience focused business environment of the 21st century, is more important for corporations than ever before.

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Age Discrimination at the Work Place

Discrimination is considered as the act of treating others in a biased manner. This unfair treatment may be directed to either an individual or a section of workers. There are various types of discrimination in society. This paper will examine age-based types of discrimination in the work place. Governments and organizations are committed to ensuring that there are no forms of prejudice (Todds 11). However, there are high levels of prejudiced practices in many places of work. Traits of such abuse are harbored by both old and young workers.

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Women’s Work and Economic Development

The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in women’s labor force status with economic development as discussed by Mammen and Paxson. In particular, the paper focuses on a simple textbook model of how women’s labor supply and type of work change at different stages of economic development. In addition, the cross-country data, along with the case study data on two developing countries are examined to see if the results are consistent with the model. The paper then argues that there is a need to measure women’s societal status via examining levels of gender discrimination and inequality in resource allocation to have a better understanding of women’s work status in the poor countries. Finally, the paper aims to explain the importance of women’s labor force status in determining why rich countries are rich and poor countries are poor.

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Homeschooling

As far back as a century ago the education of children at home by their parents was regarded as an impossible thing. Those, who were still brave enough to teach their kids by themselves, were seen as traitors to the cause. Nowadays such thing as homeschooling (it is called in such a way) becomes more and more popular. Why three – four parents out of ten chose to educate their infants at home, rather than send them to school?

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Globalization in Economics and its Consequences

Globalization refers to the process through which different regional economies, societies and cultures all over the world combine and operate as though they were a single unit (Mutia 13). Economic Globalization is a term which describes the process of integration of individual, national economies into the world economy by allowing free movement of both goods and services, and the factors of production (labor, capital, and technical knowhow) across borders. Through globalization, financial and investment markets effectively transact globally because there is better communication platform and there is no unnecessary regulation (Haggblade 2).  This paper explores the positive and negative consequences of economic globalization.

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Essay on Criminal Justice

Some people would take the purpose of punishment to be expiation or atonement for the crime. While some other major schools of thought, taking its lead primarily from Jeremy Bentham’s eighteenth-century utilitarianism, find the justification for criminal sanctions in the good that they engender (Allen 88). The predicted benefits of condemning the particular defendant as a criminal and depriving him of his liberty outweigh the costs imposed on the imprisoned convict and his or her family.

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Essay on Gravity and the Earth’s Tides

Gravity is the key to the Earth’s rising and falling tides. The combined gravitational effects of the Sun and the Moon constantly pull the world’s oceans in different directions and create tidal effects. But there are several other factors that complicate this basic process. Friction, the Earth’s rotation, the tilt of its axis and the gravitational pull given off by the Sun and Moon that affects Earth’s atmosphere. These forces together conspire to make our planet’s oceans into a battleground. These forces tug the oceans this way and that way around the globe, thus creating high tides and low tides. (more…)

Essay on Actions and Effects of Creatine

Humans have always had a fascination for being excellent at what they do, and athletics have been no exception. Many substances exist, and many have been criticized and analyzed for their safety, legality, and morality for athletes. With the banning of steroids from competitive sports, and the implementation of random drug testing in most sports, most athletes, professional, recreational, and would-be professionals are hoping to gain an edge. (more…)

Essay on Criminology

Criminological researchers – coming from a variety of disciplines – draw from research techniques used in sociology, psychology, political science and history, to name just a few. In recent years, though, criminologists too have become more reflective about research issues affecting their own subject relative to others, resulting in a number of specialist texts (Jupp, 1989; Maxfield and Babbie, 1995; Sapsford, 1996; Jupp et al. 2000; King and Wincup, 2000; Champion, 2000). A question that students, teachers and researchers in criminology often grapple with is whether there is anything distinctive about criminological research compared with research in other disciplines in the human and social sciences.

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Exegetical Essay on GENESIS 11:1-9

The descendants of Ham, fearing scattering and slavery that was promised in Gen.9:25-27, had intended to make the name for themselves by building the Tower of Babel. According to chronological studies, they should have spent three years to prepare construction materials and no less than twenty two years to build the tower in Shinar, the Babylonian kingdom. One of the ancient legends states that each of the so-called ‘bricks’, used for the construction, was 20 feet long, 15 feet wide and 7 feet thick. It is considered that the confusion of languages had happened 101 years after the Flood and 326 years before the calling of Abraham, in the fourth generation of the account of Shem, Ham and Japhet, Noah’s sons. The Tower of Babel became the symbol of pride, disobedience, and self-confidence from humans’ part and God’s control over humanity.

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Essay on Gnostic Elements in the Gospel of John

The Church of Jesus Christ takes it origins in Jewish religion. For centuries, Jews had been waiting for the coming of the Messiah, while the rest of the world wallowed in sins and idolatry. The Messiah had come, but His own people had not recognized His as a Redeemer of the world; thus, the spread of the Gospel to the gentiles had resulted in more than one hundred ‘born again’ Greeks for every converted Jew. The world was not expecting the Savior and good news were like a fresh wind. The new religion of peace, love and forgiveness was like a rain to dry lands. Nevertheless, the Church had faced the question: “Should the Greek, who is interested in Christianity, study Judaic conception and mentality of the Messiah, or there should be a new approach, which would be rooted in his own historical past and would lead to his attitude and heart? John was revealed this approach: the notion of “word” subsisted in both Jewish and Greek ideologies, which was a part of historical heritage of these races.

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Essay on the Role of Prayer and Religion to the Elderly

Religion has always been a great influence to people because they don’t know what will happen after they die. Religion helps people to believe that if there is an afterlife, which may not be negative, according to the things that they do in their life. Some people believe that there is no afterlife, and no God, but that is only an opinion. The church still has great influence on these people just because it is still a sacred thing, to worship. Religion also lets our minds settle down when someone dies because they will most likely be going somewhere other than this plane of existence.

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Essay on Stereotypes of Older Adults

Our society is filled with lots of stereotypes and prejudices based on them. These stereotypes appear as generalized opinions and they form the attitudes to people who are pretended to fall under those stereotypes. Stereotyping influences treatment and estimation of humans’ characteristics and behavior. But it is impossible to say whether this or that stereotype is real for a particular person. So people must try to stay rather objective in order to avoid prejudices, conflict situations, misunderstanding and other negative impacts.

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Essay on Significance of Talmud in Judaism

What is the Talmud and how does it relate to the Torah; what is its significance towards Judaism?

The word “Talmud” is translated from Hebrew as a “study”. It is the oral higher law in the Judaism that consists of several volumes. The origin of that religious literature dates back to the 2nd century B.C-6th century A.D. Talmud consists of two books: Mishnah and Gemara; the first one was written 300 years before the second one and both books have lots of authors and represent a code of laws given to the Jews. Mishnah is a set of court decisions that has been gathered during four hundred years. The Oral teaching that Moses grasped on Mount Sinai underlies this teaching. Mishnah was written down by Rabbi Judah Hanasi the famous Palestinian sage and lawmaker. The today’s Hebrew is the language of Mishnah. Along with the fact that it is a juridical treatise, it is a very precious historical source of those times’ life. (more…)

Essay on the Rise of Nationalism in Nigeria

By Christina Scott

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INTRODUCTION

No one, not even the most far-sighted, ever thought that British rule would last for only sixty years. In the early years of colonial rule, the idea of an independent Nigeria within so short a time would have sounded ridiculous. “The whiteman has come to stay as long as men lived,” boasted an official in 1919.   Nevertheless, nationalism started early, instigated by the need to respond to conquest and new policies. The radical phase came during and after the Second World War, subsequently leading to independence. Although the ultimate goal of nationalism was to secure the country’s independence, it had other interrelated dimensions: the “new Nigeria” would be governed by a Westernized elite, working, through the agency of political parties and Western political ideas, to create a united and developed country. If the British took over power from a traditional elite, nationalism and modernization forced them to hand it over to an educated elite.

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Essay on Thomas Aquinas

Ultimate Explanation
The great philosopher, who was recognized by the Catholic Church, Thomas Aquinas had been trying to explain the arguments of the existence of God with the help of natural theology. His book “Summa Theologica” had never been finished because of his death; nevertheless, he left the basis for natural law and systematic approach to the Christian truth. He stated that Bible does not present arguments of the existence of God; thus, his philosophy was based on the statement: “God revealed Himself through nature”. As a Christian he proved that truth is based on religion, but, at the same time, truth is based on reason. It was a creed of his scholastic explorations. Yet, in his studies, he had not come to an end and Thomas Aquinas’ version of First Cause Argument has proved to be self-refuting.
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Essay on Organizational Behavior

Theories and the field of organizational behavior study are closely connected with psychology and sociology which help to define and analyze the main elements and concepts of organizational behavior. Micro theory in organizational behavior deals with the behaviors and nature of individuals and small groups in organizations. It has been strongly influenced by psychology, and many theorists of this kind were originally trained in that field. Contrast instance, macro theory focuses on the behavior and nature of organizations, not of individuals and groups. Parts of the organization may be of concern as well, and so may the environment surrounding the organization (Sims, 2002).
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Essay on Academic Integrity

Many definitions of plagiarism show that plagiarism is a crucial problem faced by authors and writers, researchers and scientists. In general terms, plagiarism can be defined as a deliberate and conscious intent to steal someone else’s ideas and thoughts. In academic practice, plagiarism means the use of published works and someone else’s ideas without giving proper credit to that person. Plagiarism can take different forms from improper paraphrasing of the thoughts to paper or text copied from another paper without knowledge of the author. Also, plagiarism is copying of another’s paper without citation, failure to put quotation marks; omitting citations combining the work of two authors without reference to either carelessness in preparing reference lists representing ideas or work of another as researcher’s own failure to secure permission for use of figures, tables or illustrations, whether published or not (Davis 1999). For instance, if a writer ‘uses’ plot scheme of another writer (his book) without referencing him, it will be plagiarism. If a student (scientist) copy/paste from a source but does not cite material properly.

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Essay on “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Lee Harper

Since colonization period of time, racism was a disease of civilization which affected all classes and nationalities. The main characters of the novel are faced with the problems caused by educational segregation of children, right violation and neighbors’ hostility. Thesis In this novel, Harper Lee vividly depicts that racism is a disease of the Maycomb society which infected ‘white’ population and high social classes.

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Essay on Organizational Behavior in Education

Our quest for knowledge is something we should never complete; it is a desire that we should never resist. Education should empower us to answer such questions as how and why are as important as what, when and where; ask more questions, and then start over again. With an advanced education you have more choices in your life and more chances to make a difference for your community. Higher education pays you back: graduates of higher education programs earn more, have more leisure time, and live happier and healthier lives.

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Comparison Essay: King Lear vs. The Stone Angel

Introduction
A Story Conflict
Theme of journey
Setting of Nature
Social Responsibility
Loyalty
Resistance to Social Rules
Madness
The idea of Madness
Minor Characters
Conclusion

Both literary works, King Lear and The Stone Angel, bring up questions concerning ideas of madness and reason, morality and traditions, social norms and human dignity. These works belong to different epochs, but represent similar problems of individual choice and social injustice, human cruelty and misunderstanding which cause terrible sufferings for the main characters. The main difference is gender of the protagonists: King Lear is a man while Hagar is a woman. Thesis King Lear and The Stone Angel are based on similar themes and social settings used as lens of social injustice and low morals.

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Essay on Parse’s Theory Application

Parse’s theory has become an important part of nursing discipline and nursing practice. This theory forms a growing and important body of practical knowledge. According to Parse, nursing science has developed and continues to develop within two almost contradictory paradigms. These are the totality and simultaneity paradigms. Parse’s Theory sees nursing practice as an integral process which joins personal values and beliefs of nurses, health issues, a person and environment.

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Essay on The Canterbury Tales. “The Wife of Bath’s Tale”

‘The Wife of Bath Tale’ is an integral part of the “Canterbury Tales” narration. In this Tale, Chaucer depicts social and moral issues, false values and social traditions typical for the Middle Ages. The most important is that Chaucer portrays experience and life situations through woman’s eyes, her experience and feelings. Thesis Through the character of the Wife of the Bath, Chaucer depicts the difference between experience and authority unveiling that the main character replaces authority by experience seeing the latter as the moral guide.

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Essay on Nuclear Arms Proliferation

Nuclear arms proliferation is a dangerous and tremendous evil which pressures mankind through the 20th century. If we look back we could see that there has not been any century or a decade free of wars and armed conflicts, but the main question whether a nation has an obligation to go to war or not has not been answered yet. This question has agitated many people, politicians and common citizens, clergy and ethicists and is needed to be answered. Nuclear Arms is one of the dangerous weapons which can kill thousand of people and contaminate vast territories for thousands years.

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Argumentative Essay. “Romantic love is not a good basis for marriage”

The notion of marriage as an institution which necessarily preserves the vital social values of stability, continuity and propriety, only at the cost of brutally suppressing equally powerful individual needs, naturally comes under scrutiny. During the XX century, there have been heated discussions concerning romantic love and its impact on long-lasting relations. Some people suppose that pre-arranged marriage ensures long-lasting relations based on trust and financial gain, but it is also profoundly dangerous precisely because it can release and feed as many urges as it satisfies. They state that romantic love is not a good basis for marriage. Thesis Romantic love is a good basis for marriage because it ensures warm and friendly relations between spouses; it has a positive impact on human relations and their development, and ensures loving and friendly relations with children as “product” of love.

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Essay on Service Management

Centralization vs decentralization is one of the main questions concerning organizational control and effectiveness of service providers.  The main difference between centralized and decentralized service providers is the division of work and grouping of activities. Some trade-offs prefer to use decentralization which allows delegation of authority. Many service providers prefer to follow a decentralized strategy which help them to low support costs.

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Essay on Transformations of The Modern World

Globalization influences all spheres of life including economic development and social dimensions, migration and labor relations, consumption and production. The dominant form of global ideology is that of economic neoliberalism. Neoliberalism is the semi-official philosophy of the United States government, of the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, as well as most university departments of economics and many political and financial organizations, such as the Trilateral Commission.

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Essay on Ethical and Social Issues of the Internet

Arpanet network of the late sixties, which was designed to test new computer technologies and applications, has grown to a #1 database of knowledge, entertainments and risks – the Internet. However, good intentions of informational source had drastically changed till the end of XXth century. Today, the Internet is considered to be a virtual reality for youth and primary media source for others, who had entered into a computer system. Since the popularity of a little-known network had sky-rocketed to a virtual market, Internet experts have to investigate its spheres and find out issues to consider. Good technology, as it meant to be, has already crept into social, ethical and cultural elements of societies worldwide and people must keep their guard up to avoid symbiosis of man and machine. (more…)

Essay Critique on “Living Like Weasels” by Annie Dillard

In the essay “Living like weasels”, Annie Dillard states that weasels and their life style is an example of good life people should follow. The essay under analysis is full of symbolic meanings and objects which help the author to convey and interpret the meaning of the work and underline its philosophical significance. Thesis The author uses different stylistic devices to create a message of the essay, but she does not express her ideas logically and clearly. (more…)

Comparing and Contrasting Essay

Today, for many companies a website is the main tool on the basis of which the firm carries out the transactions flow between itself and the buyer. In indirect marketing the manufacturer utilizes the services of various types of independent marketing organizations or cooperative organizations that are located in the home country. When a manufacturer exports indirectly, the responsibility for carrying out the foreign selling job is transferred to some other organization. The companies chosen for analysis are: Starbucks, Microsoft and Xerox.

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Narrative Essay on Romeo Dallaire

A Canadian Lieutenant General, Romeo Dallaire has made a great contribution into the peace-keeping mission and International human rights movement. Being an experienced solder Dallaire did everything to protect human’s rights and resist to the world coalition of false “peacemakers” who did nothing to help people in Rwanda during the genocide period.

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Essay. The Assault on the Native Americans and their Ways of Life

Thesis The main problems faced by many Indian families and communities include assaults on their culture and ways of life, traditions and values alien for and misunderstood by many Americans.

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Essay on “Fast Food Nation”

In the book, “Fast Food Nation” E. Schlosser speaks about fast food culture and its impact on American population. He singles out the main characteristics of the fast food, its history and advantages. Schlosser argues that the image of fast food culture is replaced by a version of the social culture that is constituted by a process of ongoing struggle to comprehend and live through a world in which everything that was solid is melting into air. He speaks about fast food as both “a commodity and metaphor” which helps him to analyze and reveal the nature of this phenomenon. (more…)

Essay on “As You Like It”