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By Tammy C. Howard

Introduction to Environmental Health

Environmental HealthThe problem of HIV/AIDS is one of the most dangerous problems ever occurred in Africa continent. Poor and marginalized people are being hit worst all over the world. All of the inequalities and injustices that affect people’s health and access to health care also occur with HIV and AIDS. AIDS interventions and policies, introduced in African countries, became a failure because they did not solve the problem of HIV/AIDS and “adequately reflected the link between AIDS and poverty” (The death toll continues 2007). The problem of AIDS/HIV has been closely connected with social and economic development of African countries. The failure is explained by the fact that AIDS prevention efforts did not take into account social development of African countries and economic problems faced by the population. Most of the policies were ‘wrongly directed’ and did not reach the target audience and its current problems. Lack of political will and recognition of the problem is another area of critique. For years in Africa, denial of the prob­lem by governments at all levels has been a significant constraint. In a region going through the upheaval of transition, transferring resources to a potential problem was a difficult proposition. Governments were not able to make the case that in an environment of dwindling resources, dealing with HIV/AIDS was the most urgent priority. Western scientists suggest that structural factors are deep-seated and complex problems. The failure is that the projects did not rely on a broad battery of actions to address political will, such as media campaigns that increase public aware­ness, multi-sectoral partnerships, training for workers and govern­ment staff and had very scarce resources.

A local council could spend 1 million dollars on food programs and social support of children who lose a parent. The food will be distributed directly to the needy according to the list provided by the state administration. The quantity of food will depend upon the group and family member (see the next section for details).  The project will focus on three distinct customer segments. The first group is pregnant and nursing mothers. The second group is children under 6. As it is women who generally organize food in any household it seems natural to them to feed their families first and more adequately than they do themselves. The food will include grains (rice, in particular), bread, canned meet and vegetables, oil, milk and butter. The grain will be supplier by local farmers. Canned meat and fresh vegetable will be supplied by national manufactures and farmers. It is expected to contact fro one year with two main dairy product suppliers in India for milk, oil and butter for regular supply of these products.

This project will help to support a certain target group and improve health conditions of children who lost a parent. In a global context, this project will help to reduce poverty level and malnutrition. Community infrastructure, or the lack thereof, is increasingly seen as having a major impact on health-related issues, including the implementation of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS programs. Espe­cially in countries with weak central governments, communities can play a vital role in education, treatment, and care. Unfortunately, many communities throughout the region are still recovering from the transition and lack the self-reliance required to support these initiatives. Efforts must be made to build capacity for community support and outreach programs. In addition, African governments should include the disease providing education, in schools and communities. In particular, the links between the course of the epidemic and adult mortality, between parents’ mortality and their children’s education; and between the formation of human capital and output, need to be made explicit and estimated empirically. The discussions and preparation processes leading up to these projects are themselves vital in generating and building commitment among populations.


  1. The death toll continues to overwhelm. 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007 http://www.iisd.org/briefcase/ten+ten_failures9.asp