Essay on World Politics

The investments of developed countries had raised the economies of China, Thailand, Singapore, and some Latin American countries in 1990’s. The high income per capita, industrial and technological revolutions has shifted them from the rank of developing countries to economically developed and industrialized nations with ponderable share in the global market. Nevertheless, some countries still face the problems of low living standards, undeveloped industrial bases and low human development.

The East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe suffer from the lack of foreign investments and domestic stagnation of economics and governance. These countries depend on the UN, the World Bank and other intergovernmental organizations that are responsible for international development. Such institutions have to define clear strategy and plans that will alleviate economic and structural problems; describe educational, environmental and healthcare issues, and prevent long-term crises.

Neither “bottom up”, nor “top down” approaches were generally agreed by Nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s) and political structures. On the one hand, NGO’s claim to be the only driving forces that lead to peace and development in the countries throughout the world. Community that consists of planners, engineers, funders, and, finally, end users are the primary activists, who toil at growing economies; therefore, these local communities support solution-seeking programs and apply them on local levels. Cameron Sinclair, co-founder of Architecture for Humanity and Worldchanging contributors, in his comments to Alex Steffen’s “Open Source Design” states that “top-down approaches waste millions and in the case of Sri Lanka instigate political friction – leading to the war in the east.”

On the other hand, people, who support “top-down” approach, agree that bottom-up method lacks of discipline and clearly defined strategy, which is a core stage in any process of development and implementation. Global democracy should not be based on equal rights without privileges and hierarchy in all social levels, because sooner or later it may bring chaos. Even our highly democratized community is composed of poor and rich, educated and illiterate, flabby and firm characters.

NGO’s are less organized structures than political ones and when the crisis comes they fail to complete their mission and serve as an example of ineffective institution. Ancient civilizations had set an ideal pattern of top-down approach. Wise pharaohs, who had established ruling dynasties that lasted for centuries and brilliant emperors, who had conquered almost half of the existent world, are the greatest examples of leadership, authority and good governance. Thus, the most effective approach to make solid arena for the future development of world politics is considered to be a top-down method.

A global inequality means the gap between rich and poor countries, in economic and social spheres. Main poverty areas are centered in South and East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. One half of world’s poor is considered to live in South Asia, one quarter in China and the highest rates of poverty, on the basis of proportion of population, are in Africa. Cult of money has increased the gap between the richest and the poorest in the last decade and has sky-rocketed the income of the richest from 1 to 20 percent. At the same time the income of the poorest, 60 percent or more than 2.5 billion people, has drastically declined. While the open economy has settled new living standards and poverty decline in China, post-communist Eastern Europe suffers privations.

Help With Essay On World Politics
Help With Essay On World Politics

Though economy plays major role in world inequality, there are some other factors that make clear distinction in communities. Health, educational and computer issues are still present in Asia and Eastern Europe. The ratio of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries is twenty to one, which shows a lack of medical examination, care, and equipment, ‘brain-drain’ and unqualified personnel. The number of educated children in poor countries averages one half, at the same time as one-third remains illiterate. Technological revolution, which had covered the USA, Western Europe and Japan in the late 1990’s, has cut off developing countries from the use of the Internet and PC. The only method to diminish world inequality is to invest in health, education, and technology; thereby help our ‘little brothers’ and give them a hand.

Development in an international concept has not been defined yet, nevertheless, some points had been generally accepted. International development is a process of infrastructure’s formation, the creation of social programs, poverty’s and illiteracy’s decline, raise of GNP per capita, support of developed countries for economic growth, civil rights’ security, and the junction of developing countries into global political structures. The development is related to health, educational, environmental, economic, and democratic issues, as well as to crisis forecast, governance system and structural reforms.

The development is not associated with a short-term humanitarian and disaster relieves. Its strategy is aimed at solving long-term crises in developing countries and at establishment of proper institutions to solve these problems. The United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are the major international organizations of developed countries that are obliged to support developing countries, and, by these actions, to diminish global inequalities.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a criterion of market activity. It reflects goods and services in monetary value and shows the activity of an economy in a particular period. Investments, the trade balance, consumption and government purchases are the indicators that frame GDP. Thus, it indicates the state of economy in a given country and shows either its raise or fall. The GDP of individual countries shows their activity in global market. Therefore, if the GDP in Columbia, Philippines or Greece is lower than annual sales in Ford or Toyota corporations, then, these countries are unlikely to attract the capital of investors. First of all, low GDP rate shows purchasing capacity and income of every resident. Moreover, the trade balance denominates the quantity of exported goods and services minus the quantity of imported goods and services. The state of economy will be indicated by import (if it is higher than export – it is a call to action). If GDP rate fails to meet predicted growth, it is doomed to self-recovery and not sustainable economic development.

The next ten years are the running start for developing countries of East Asia, while post-communistic Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa seem to make no headway. The rapid growth of China’s economy had drawn attention of foreign capitals and investments. This country has proven to have a reliable and cheap labor force that, nevertheless, produces high-quality products. Since the ideologies and economic standards had shifted from monarchal to democratized ones, all their political and governmental actions were set to reach top-ranked economic growth and development.

The end of the Cold War had crushed the iron curtain and made way for new era of world politics and international development. Japan, followed by South Korea, and Thailand, has invested in Asian production network and created a ground base for foreign capitals. The Chinese, Korean and Singaporean markets are glutted with export products; thus, the East Asia holds the trump cards for economic development for the next ten years. Geographical advantage, cheap labor, high-quality products and population’s growth are bases for successful foreign capital’s experiences.

Nevertheless, Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa do not attract investments. Post-communistic nations failed to pass the exams on reliability and structural readjustments; while, Africa with its climate and incompetence in development of information and communication technology has not met the requirements of managerial check-up. However, core issues have to be solved by international organizations that must address rules to common interests and gain trust of global economic system.

Works cited:
1. Parfitt, T. “The end of development? Modernity, Post-Modernity and Development”. Pluto Press. 2002.
2. Schuurman, F. J. “Beyond the impasse: new directions in development theory”. Zed Press. 1993.
3. Steffen, Alex. Tools, Models and Ideas for Building a Bright Green Future: Open Source Design. February 23, 2006. Online. WorldChanging Archives. Internet. December 27, 2006. Available: http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/004140.html

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