Essay on True Diversity: Ethics Development, Understanding, and Application

The terms of ethics originates from the Ancient Greek word “ethicos”, which means “arising from habits” (Blackburn, 202). In fact it is one of the major branches of philosophy studying the notions of value and quality and employing such concepts as good, evil, right and wrong, responsibility and purposes.

Help With Essay On Ethics
Help With Essay On Ethics

Nowadays modern philosophers divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics (Blackburn, 204). The first branch, metaethics, investigates the origin of our ethical concepts and principles. Normative ethics has somewhat more practical matters to handle – to observe moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct of every person. Normative ethics teaches how to tell right from wrong and bad from good.

The last type, applied ethics, examines controversial items of human life which include environmental concerns, animal rights, abortion, homosexual relations, and the problem of nuclear war, to name a few. The principal method of applied ethics is discussion, which uses the tools of metaethics and normative ethics in order to establish the truth. But it is necessary to say that the boundaries between metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics are quite vague, because in some cases a controversial question can be examined by using all the types of ethical branches.

The difference between ethics and morality is often compared to the difference between music and musicology: musicology is a reflection on music, whilst ethics is a reflection on morality. Values are important beliefs and desires that shape attitudes towards different phenomena and occurrances and motivate actions one has to take in his or her life.

Ethics is used to analyze different life aspects, such as economy, politics, business, family relations, environmental protection, and others. Thus they result in the beginnings of new social movements. For example, ethics applied to family relations leads to the examination and investigation of the roles of man and woman in family and the rising influence of feminism upon them. The ethics issue is also brought up in war matters and results in such movements as pacifism and nonviolence principles (the Indian leader Mahathma Gandhi was among the first people who supprted nonviolence). If we use ethics to study environmental processes, social ecology emerges.

I guess that my ethic principles were formed in the course of my bringing up, that is, they were shaped mainly by my parents and family traditions. Family is the first source of notions of good and bad, of right and wrong for a child. The very first knowledge of every kid includes natural understanding that Mom and Dad are the closest people to him. Child accepts them and believes everything they tell him or her. Parents are the first tutors that try to explain truth.

We all remember how our parents told us (and still tell us): “It’s not right to do so” or “You have to do it so and so”. In the later times of life school and college teachers become another source of knowledge about ethics. Besides, a teenager interacts with different people and faces real-life situations where his or her first “tough decisions” have to be made. (MacIntyre, 23).

Everyone applies ethics in professional life, and I can say that my own ethical principles often help me to make vital decisions in situations that require moral reasoning in a tricky situation. In such cases it is necessary to possess high level of moral culture in order to stay who you are no matter what happens.
In the professional decision-making such term as ethical code is often used. It is a code of professional responsibility and it can be applied to every kind of profession. Ethical code can deal with such controversial questions as the decision of what behaviour can be called “ethical”. A code of ethics of every organization is often a formulated statement of organizational ethics and values. Some of them set certain rules on such matters as quality, employees or environment. Others indicate special procedures that have to be used in controversial ethical situations. The effectiveness of such codes usually depends on their management support, for example rewards or penalties for the staff and others. (Ladd, 19)
Critical thinking consists of mental processes that evaluate the information, in particular the proposals that people consider as truthful ones. Critical thinking plays a great role in formation of a special attitude towards different things. Those who are able to think critically possess a real treasure because it enables them to analyze every type of information from the position of rationalizm and life experience. Critical thinking is always connected with the knowlegde of ethical theories. This sum of knowledge influences one’s decisions and actions at work and in private life.
There are three ethical theories that help to make certain decisions and to formulate one’s conduct. They are:
– virtue theories;
– duty theories;
– consequentialist theories. (MacIntyre, 97)

Virtue theorists assume that it is more important to learn certain rules than to develop good habits of character. For example, once you have “installed” benevolence into your character, you will always act in a benevolent way. The virtue theory was used by Ancient Greeks in particular, for example, Plato indicated four virtues which later were called “cardial virtues”. They are wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. Apart from naming these “good” features ancient philisophers asserted that everyone should avoid bad character traits, in other words vices such as cowardice, vanity and injustice. (Cornman, 105)
Duty theories include the notion of obligation. Obligation drives us to act in a certain way even if we do not want to. The 17th century philosopher Samuel Pufendorf divided duties into three groups: duties to God, to oneself, and duties to others, including treating people as equals and promoting good to others. It was a continuation of the biblical Golden Rule: “Do unto others as you want them do unto you”. Duty theories also include the terms of moral rights, which are first of all natural, universal and equal for everyone.
Consequentialism considers that an action is morally right if probable consequences of that action are more favourable than unfavourable. Consequentialists assume that we always have good and bad points of important actions and decisions.

I can provide two life examples of how critical thinking and my ethics influence my professional life. If I have to sell an apartment and I know that it’s not that good, I won’t describe it to the customer as an ideal one in order to sell it, because I won’t act against my moral principles which say: don’t deceive others. The second example is the following: if I make a mistake, I won’t hide it, because according my ethics it is mean. I think life teaches us a lot, and ethical principles are what makes us act in a certain way following both traditional scheme of values and beliefs and our own personal notions.


1. Blackburn, S. Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996
2. Cornman, J. Philosophical Problems and Arguments. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1992
3. MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics. Routledge, 2002
4. Singer, P. A Companion to Ethics. Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1993
5. Ladd, J. The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991 is a provider of high quality, custom writing services and can write any kind of paper, including case studies. is experienced in writing informative, detailed, and concise case studies on any subject and using either kind of case study approaches. If you need help with a case study, place your order for a case study and one of our professional writers will happily construct a case study for you or help you with any other writing assignment you may have: Essay, Research Paper, Thesis, Term Paper, etc.

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