Essay on Organizational Behavior in Education

Our quest for knowledge is something we should never complete; it is a desire that we should never resist. Education should empower us to answer such questions as how and why are as important as what, when and where; ask more questions, and then start over again. With an advanced education you have more choices in your life and more chances to make a difference for your community. Higher education pays you back: graduates of higher education programs earn more, have more leisure time, and live happier and healthier lives.

Hwlp With Essay on Organizational Behavior in Education
Hwlp With Essay on Organizational Behavior in Education

Nowadays, we are attempting to create systems of education that provide the best education to the most people at the least cost. However, as we face a new millennium, we find that in some ways education has not changed much in the last 100 years.

To say that there has been a cognitive revolution in organizational behavior (OB) is to misspeak; to date, it has been little more than a minor skirmish. But a cognitive revolution is occurring all around. The 1990s have been designated “the decade of the brain.” What many of us knew as experimental psychology is now cognitive psychology. In some senses, this cognitive psychology includes many of the classic topics of sensation, perception, learning, and memory. In others, it has been dramatically transformed, both in the way that key constructs are viewed and in the way that research is done. A new discipline, cognitive science, has evolved that spans the boundaries of chemistry, biology, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, physics, computer science, and anatomy (Gordon, 81). In 1991, the Academy of Management established a new cognitive interest area for those concerned with cognitive processes across the whole spectrum of organizational phenomena. The adoption of cognitive constructs into a wide variety of disciplines has been so pervasive that to ask what is not cognitive is a reasonable question. The field of OB has not escaped the influence of cognitive points of view nor has the field been transformed or absorbed by such views.

When cognitive constructs are addressed within OB, they tend to be treated in one of two ways. The first begins with the cognitive theory and translates its constructs into organizational ones. Gordon (1959) control theory of work motivation was a good example of this. Working from classical control theory models, Leontief added variables and reinterpreted behavioral theory related to control mechanisms in ways that fit organizational phenomena. Few or no changes were suggested in basic control theory constructs; the modifications provided were simple translations of key constructs into organizationally relevant terms. The end product was the same theory, in Leontief ‘s case, control theory, with an organizational twist.

The second approach is to begin and end with some particular organizational phenomenon. To this, cognitive constructs relevant to the phenomenon are brought to bear. Cognitive processes are used as explanatory constructs for understanding the organizational issue of interest. The extensive work on cognitive influences in performance appraisal follows the latter strategy. This work begins with the organizational phenomenon of appraising other individuals in a formal appraisal system and introduces cognitive variables likely to influence the rater’s ability to observe, remember, recall, and record the performance of other individuals (Leontief, 2002). In contrast to the first approach where the focus is on the cognitive theory, the second remains on the organizational phenomenon.

Checks indicate that a number of studies exist within that content area. Whether one chooses to view the set from the standpoint of the rows (the first approach described earlier) or the columns (the second approach) is immaterial; both are legitimate.

In 1988, there were two major reviews of the cognitive research in OB. One chose to organize the literature by cognitive theories (Porter, 2004) and the other by organizational topics Porter, 2004). In the remainder of this chapter, we first briefly describe the primary cognitive theories and processes that have been invoked to address organizational phenomena. With these as background, we then provide a selected review and commentary on cognitively oriented organizational behavior topics. These reviews will be followed with an overall evaluative discussion of the role and nature of cognitive processes in OB.

Participation by all team members in an interdisciplinary team is particularly important in that different members of the team have different information. Mitroff and Kilmann note that the distribution of information impacts the quality of a group’s decision. When just a few members have needed information, participation by all group members is crucial for effective decision making (1978, p. 270). When all group members have the same information, participation is less critical. Jarboe argues that involvement in group processes not only allows for sharing of information, but also enhances the quality of group decision making, facilitates commitment to the decision and the group, and increases member satisfaction with the group. Some researchers observe that “there is a long line of research indicating that the total of all group members’ expressed positions greatly influences the decision outcome” (Leontief, p. 288). Knowledge of organizational behavior helps to establish effective distribution of information among education group members.

Therefore, knowledge of organizational behavior is important in education institutions because it results in improvement of teamwork in education. Leontief argues that participation in organizations is multidimensional, including, for example, access to information, activity in organizational groups, and perceived empowerment (2004, p. 140). Previous research findings on teams, particularly those in the education setting, suggest thee important dimensions of team decision making: (a) all members participating in the decision-making process, (b) listening to the opinions of other team members, and (c) open discussion of feelings among team members (Aldag, p. 48). In addition, the hallmarks of small group democracy are (a) equity in speaking opportunities, (b) listening to others’ perspectives, and (c) equal say in making decisions (Aldag, 1993, p. 49). Thus, decision-making processes in teamwork, including involvement, listening, and expressing affect, play an important role in health care team outcomes. Effective decision-making processes impact assessments of team outcomes, such as satisfaction with the group and productivity.

Conclusion
Success comes along with education. With modern OB technology and improvements in the field of education it is achievable for everyone. For most of us, having money means being successful, which is the reason more people decide to improve their education to be able to work in better paid positions. Education is a basis of our society, without a good education we can never move up in the business world, get the pay we deserve, or work in some of the places that we would prefer to. A lot of companies now require an associates degree just to become a supervisor with there company but very few Universities can use innovative OB technologies and provide high quality modern education. If a person doesn’t have a proper education he or she must struggle through life from day to day. We must not stop learning because the world is changing rapidly now and if we wish to keep abreast of these changes, we must constantly expand our knowledge and reform our education system.

References:

Aldag R. J. ( 1992). Images of the Academy. The Academy of Management News, 22(4), 1 – 5.

Bowers D. G., & Seashore S. E. ( 1966). “Predicting organizational effectiveness with a four-factor theory of leadership”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11, 238 – 263.

Campbell J. P., Daft R. L., & Hulin C. L. ( 1982). What to study: Generating and developing research questions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Gordon R. A., & Howell J. E. ( 1959). Higher education for business. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hakel M. D. ( 1991). “The consulting academician”. In Bray D. W. (Ed.), Working with organizations and their people (pp. 151-171). New York: Guilford.

Leontief W. ( 2001). “Academic economics”. Science, 217, 104-107.

Mitroff I. I., & Kilmann R. H. ( 1978). Methodological approaches to social science. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Pierson Frank C. ( 1999). The education of American businessmen: A study of university-college programs in business administration. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Porter L. W., & McKibbin L. E. ( 2004). Management education and development: Drift or thrust into the 21st century? New York: McGraw-Hill.

Spence J., & Foss D. (Eds.). (2002). The human capital initiative. Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.

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