Essay on Organizational Behavior

Theories and the field of organizational behavior study are closely connected with psychology and sociology which help to define and analyze the main elements and concepts of organizational behavior. Micro theory in organizational behavior deals with the behaviors and nature of individuals and small groups in organizations. It has been strongly influenced by psychology, and many theorists of this kind were originally trained in that field. Contrast instance, macro theory focuses on the behavior and nature of organizations, not of individuals and groups. Parts of the organization may be of concern as well, and so may the environment surrounding the organization (Sims, 2002).

Help with Essay on Organizational Behavior
Help with Essay on Organizational Behavior

Sociology has played a role in the development of macro theory very similar to that played by psychology in micro theory. Personal and individual peculiarities are studied by psychology while sociology helps to explain and analyze anthropological, political and economic differences and issues. Basically, these are values related to micro and macro levels of analysis. “In some areas of I/O psychology, such as job satisfaction, new perspectives on affect have begun to reshape the domain” (Kanfer et al 2002, 5). At present, it appears to be particularly concerned with variations in the value placed on the study of individuals in organizations. In general, only a special combination of sociology and psychology helps to understand organizations as complex units. For instance, personality theory gradually gave way to social psychology, in particular to group dynamics and action research. For instance, values are more acceptable to psychology than to organizational behavior but they play an important role in analysis of organizational behavior (Mowday, Sutton, 1993).

In the new millennium, the development of skills in managing people from diverse cultural backgrounds will become more and more of a priority for managers in advanced industrialized societies. It is also now well known that economic globalization has a significant impact on industrial relations systems. Sims (2002) asserts that there is evidence of change in traditional patterns of bargaining and in workplace norms and, in addition, many countries are seeing a decline in unionism and collective bargaining. The changing nature of global labor markets has also posed new challenges for IR. Harvey et al (1999) assert that changes in work systems and the loosening of the customary spatial ties of workers to worksites are fundamentally changing the traditional concept of the workplace. It is argued that this poses challenges to unions with regard to the organizing of employees. This shift has resulted in the decline in union membership in developed countries, and in developing countries privatization has done away with many unionized jobs and hence created a decline in union membership. A manager should be well aware of cultural diversity issues and have substantial knowledge in diversity management and its practical application. In the globalized world, managers require human-centered approach in order to meet demands of global staff, “a global mindset, global leadership skills, an ability to lead cross-cultural teams, energy and talent to participate in global networking, and skills as a global change agent. Traditional training and development approaches fall short of what is required for globalization” (Kim 1999, 227). The main skills are good cross cultural communication and fast adaptation to changing conditions.

It is crucial to replace intuition with systemic study in order to acrid mistakes and pitfall based unprofessional judgments and decision-making. Systemic study helps to define and choose the tactical level which is the development of specific means for achieving the strategy. It is the formulation of specific, concrete goals and objectives to help the organization reach its chosen destination. Planning at this level is analogous to determining which highways will provide the most direct and easily traveled route to the destination. Intuition replaces by systemic study might be carried out by top and middle managers in a larger organization where several levels of management exist (Marsden, 1999). Planning at this level is often thought of as the responsibility of lower-level managers within a more complex organizational structure. Without clear vision of goals and objectives, roadmap, and reliable transportation, chances of a good result are greatly reduced. Strategic planning is a means whereby staff can closely examine options and attempt to develop a concrete, workable map to follow. Unlike intuition, systemic study addresses complex issues and extends into organization’s future, recognizing that realistically, not all of your goals can be developed and achieved in a one-year period. The systemic study, then, will be the guiding force behind the development of annual goals and objectives for the next several years. Strategic planning tends to be market oriented (Beardwell et al 2004).

4. In general, workforce diversity means that staff consists of different social and racial groups of employees coming from different backgrounds and classes. “Some writers identify “diversity” as an affirmative action goal, a condition resulting from affirmative action, or as a program to support affirmative action (Guajardo, 1999). Diversity is also described as an “ethic,” that gives meaning to affirmative action. In other writing, a “diversity” goal is to reflect within the organization the demographic diversity of a local or national community. It has also been used to imply a nonspecific organizational multiculturalism” (Carrell, Mann, 1995). All employees come from different cultural and social environment; they have different social statuses and class location, different religious beliefs and belong to different cultures. Differences are bound to exist, due simply to the physical characteristics of the employees, such as sex, nation race. These differences create a certain tension between employees which requires special intervention actions of HR department to manage workforce diversity (Haines, Hemphill, 1997). The workforce diversity need not be considered as a barrier to achieving wide objec¬tives, but a facilitator of achieving improved competitive advantage (Carrell, Mann, 1995). Human resources have an individual as well as a corporate existence, each person having certain goals and aspirations.
References
1. Beardwell, I. Holden, L., Claydon, T. (2004). Human Resource Management, London Pitman Publishing,
2. Carrell, M. R., Mann, E.E. (1995). Defining Workforce Diversity in Public Sector Organizations. Public Personnel Management, 24, (1), 99.
3. Guajardo, S.A. (1999). Workforce Diversity: Monitoring Employment Trends in Public Organizations. Public Personnel Management, 28 (1), 63.
4. Haines, R., Hemphill, H. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Quorum Books.
5. Harvey, M. G., Novicevic, M.M., Speier, Ch. (1999). The Role of Inpatriates in a Globalization Strategy and Challenges Associated with the Inpatriation Process. Human Resource Planning, 22 (1), 38.
6. Kanfer, R., Klimoski, R.J., Lord, R.G. (2002). Emotions in the Workplace: Understanding the Structure and Role of Emotions in Organizational Behavior. Jossey-Bass.
7. Kim, P.S. (1999). Globalization of Human Resource Management: A Cross-Cultural Perspective for the Public Sector. Public Personnel Management, 28 (2), 227
8. Marsden, D. (1999). A Theory of Employment Systems: Micro-Foundations of Diversity. Oxford University Press.
9. Mowday, R.T., Sutton, R.L., (1993). Organizational Behavior: Linking Individuals and Groups to Organizational Contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, p. 195.
10. Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Quorum Books.

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