Essay on Parse’s Theory Application

Parse’s theory has become an important part of nursing discipline and nursing practice. This theory forms a growing and important body of practical knowledge. According to Parse, nursing science has developed and continues to develop within two almost contradictory paradigms. These are the totality and simultaneity paradigms. Parse’s Theory sees nursing practice as an integral process which joins personal values and beliefs of nurses, health issues, a person and environment.

Help with Essay on Parse’s Theory Application
Help with Essay on Parse’s Theory Application

According to Parse, the totality paradigm sees the person as an organism whose nature is a composite of bio-psycho-social and spiritual dimensions. The environment is the internal and external stimuli surrounding the person. The person has to manipulate and interact with the environment in order to achieve goals and to maintain health, which is viewed as a dynamic state of bio-psycho-social-spiritual integrity and balance. The goals of nursing focus on health promotion, care and cure of the sick and the prevention of illness, while those receiving nursing care are people who are viewed as ill by society (Bunting, 1992). The totality paradigm has been, and on the authority of Parse continues to be, the predominant paradigm in nursing. Health is viewed as a “process of becoming” and as a set of value priorities. Health is experienced by the individual and therefore can only be described by that individual. There is no optimum health: health is how one experiences personal living (Parse, 1995).

The event under analysis took place in health care center for people with Alzheimer disease. This center specializes in medical treatment and nursing care for such patients. The main participants are a patient, a 70 year old man, his son (the family) and a nurse. In terms of Parse’s theory, within the simultaneity paradigm the patient is viewed as a unitary being who is in continuous mutual and simultaneous interaction with the environment. In this case his son (family) and a patient are viewed as different from, and more than, the sum of their parts. They give meaning to situations and, as “open beings”, are responsible for choices in moving beyond what exists at present (Parse, 1981). The role of the nurse is to illuminate meaning and focuses on the movement of the person and family “beyond the moment relative to changing health patterns. The disease has a great impact on family members and the role of a nurse is to teach them how to behavior and support an ill-member. Also, there are no care plans constructed around health problems for every patient. The prime decision maker and authority figure is the patient, not the nurse.

In this administrative situation, the patient (and his family) determines the activities for changing health patterns; the nurse in true presence with the person guides the way. His son chooses home nursing practice as the most effective way for further treatment and medical support. Following Parse, humans are a synergistic open being co-extensive with the universe and free to choose in situations. A special values of the nurse included specialized treatment procedures and schedule, humanity and high level of responsibility. A nursing practice is an art focusing on the patient as a living unit. His health and treatment is a process of becoming, as experienced by the patient. Environment is co-constituted becoming in mutual simultaneous energy exchange with the person. As the most important, this administrative situation sees the patient as a part of the family taking into account environment and its influence on the patient.

According to Parse, if practitioners perceive people as having biological, social, psychological and spiritual parts and as continually being confronted by environmental change to which they must adapt in order to maintain health, then theories from the totality “stable” would be the proper focus for selection. In contrast, if practitioners believe people are meaningful individuals who are much more than just the sum of their parts and who are in continuous and mutual interaction with the environment and for whom health is a set of values, then the simultaneity “stable” would be the focus for their selection exercise. Personal values and beliefs as a basis for choice: critics point out that nursing theories are laden with philosophical assumptions (Barker et al 1998).
Other theories which can be applied to this situation are Patricia Benner’s theory and Margaret Newman’s theory (Humanistic models). Both of these theories are based on humanistic approach seeing patients as living beings. Newman sees nursing activity as “expanding consciousness” where the role of nurse is to determine life patterns of the patients and coordinate healthcare activities according to these patterns. Benner underlines that the areas of concern are stress and coping. In this case, the nursing process is a dynamic and continuous cycle that aims to place the patient as an individual at the heart of the assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation of nursing care. Both theories incorporate a belief system that nurses have an influence on patient care and ultimately on health outcomes. Benner and Newman see the nursing process can be described as a merger of decision making skills with caring ability and is influenced by knowledge, research and experience. Both of these models will allow the nurse and patient to identify actual problems towards the goal of determining the health status of the patient. Such a hybrid approach appears to have the advantages of formalized, standardized approach for the most pressing concerns, while affording nurses the time and opportunity to use their clinical, interpersonal, and case management skills to the benefit of the patient, too (Nursing Theories 2006).

In sum, Parse’s model (based on human-centered approach) helps nurses to identify communication and practice for this administrative situation. As the most important, a patient is not a passive recipient of medical care but an active participant. Also, Parse’s theory helps family members to overcome psychological and emotional stress caused by disease of their relative. The role of nurse is to evaluate all elements of the process including medical practice, a patient, and environment.

Works Cited Page
1. Barker, P.J., Reynolds, W., Stevenson, C. The Human Science Basis of Psychiatric Nursing: Theory and Practice. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol. 34, 1998.
2. Bunting, Sh. Rosemarie Parse: Theory of Health as Human Becoming. Sage Publications, Inc, 1992.
3. Nursing Theories. http://www.enursescribe.com/nurse_theorists.htm
4. Parse R.R. Illuminations: A Human Becoming Theory in Practice and Research. National League for Nursing, New York, 1995.

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