Essay on Thomas Aquinas

Ultimate Explanation
The great philosopher, who was recognized by the Catholic Church, Thomas Aquinas had been trying to explain the arguments of the existence of God with the help of natural theology. His book “Summa Theologica” had never been finished because of his death; nevertheless, he left the basis for natural law and systematic approach to the Christian truth. He stated that Bible does not present arguments of the existence of God; thus, his philosophy was based on the statement: “God revealed Himself through nature”. As a Christian he proved that truth is based on religion, but, at the same time, truth is based on reason. It was a creed of his scholastic explorations. Yet, in his studies, he had not come to an end and Thomas Aquinas’ version of First Cause Argument has proved to be self-refuting.

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For centuries, theologians, astronomers and scientists had been trying to prove the existence of the universe, using different points of view. Some contend that the “big bang” theory leaves no doubts and the universe is about 15 billion years now. While theologians claim that since the universe has a beginning, it must have a Beginner. Thomas Aquinas named God the First Cause. The following is the formulation of his argument:
“In the world of sensible things, we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known … in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go to infinity, because . . . the first is the cause of the intermediate cause, and the intermediate is the cause of the ultimate cause…. Now to take away the cause is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate, cause. . . therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name god” (“Summa Theologica”, 1947).

This material contains five points: everything has a cause, other than itself; the universe consists of events, therefore, was caused also; all events are effects of some previous causes, yet, the series of causes are not infinite; since, there is no infinity of events, there must be the Uncaused Cause; this Cause is God. The Na?ve version of the arguments missed the point that since everything is caused by something other than itself, then God has a cause, other than Himself. Therefore, God cannot be the Uncaused (the First) Cause. There is a contradiction inside the argument; consequently, the conclusion cannot be true.

On the other hand, the ultimate explanation differs from the First Cause arguments in the following: everything has a beginning in time; so, it has a cause; the universe had a beginning in time, it had a cause; only God could cause the universe; thus, God exists. God’ existence is never-ending and He does not have a cause. Additionally, the argument does not claim the end of the series of causes. The ultimate explanation understands that God is not involved in the chain of causes and He has no beginning in time. In brief, God is not a part of this chain, He is its Creator.

The existence of the universe can not be taken apart from God, for He is the Founder and Beginner of it. We do not live in chaos – the nature has the laws and it follows these laws. Men can lay down the law, but no one can create it and set it into being. Therefore, the only One, who can be the Lawmaker, is God. Until now, humans were trying to create living things, but they failed to complete these tests. Cloning is not a creation. The evolution theory had also passed away, because educated people can clearly see the difference between the arguments and reality. Everyone can prove that a masterpiece was painted by an artist, why should anyone explain the nature of the universe without God?

The existence of God is self-evident. Though, it is not evident for us because we are not able to grasp His essence. God is invisible to us; however, since the creation of the universe we can clearly see His eternal power and divine nature through what He had made – the nature and all its laws and creatures. We will never ever have the ability to prove the existence of God from our point of view – our minds are limited and sooner or later will come to an end. Clay will never prove the existence of potter; in the same way, people (the creatures of God) will not be able to prove the existence of their Creator, using their concepts, feelings, opinions, or, even, words.
References:
Thomas Aquinas. (1947). Summa Theologica. New York: Benziger Bros., Inc.

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